9 CFR = Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Chapter 1, Subchapter A - Animal Welfare 9 CFR is the nuts-and-bolts of the Animal Welfare Act. This is where you'll find cage sizes, enrichment standards, transportation regulations, and the like.
AAALAC International = Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Lab Animal Care, International - Non-profit accrediting agency for laboratories. Accreditation is to ensure the "humane use" of nonhuman animals in research. Membership is voluntary, laboratory inspections are performed every three years, and this is the only independent laboratory accreditation the Public Health Service (PHS) recognizes.
AALAS = American Association for Lab Animal Science - Certifies individuals working in laboratories [Assistant Laboratory Animal Technician (ALAT), Laboratory Animal Technician (LAT), and Laboratory Animal Technologist (LATG)]. This non-profit organization provides a "...forum for the exchange of information and expertise in the care and use of animals."
AC = Animal Care - This office of the USDA establishes government standards of humane care, monitors Animal Welfare Act (AWA) compliance - monitors laboratories, zoos, circuses, animal breeders and dealers by conducting yearly inspections or special inspections. Find Publications.
AIDS Animal Models - This area of Comparative Medicine (a branch of the National Institutes of Health) identifies and develops animal models - chimpanzee and specific-pathogen free (SPF) macaques.
APHIS = Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - This government office pertains to all matters agricultural and nonhuman animal. APHIS is responsible for monitoring and promoting the health of animals and plants; its office of Animal Care enforces the Animal Welfare Act.
ARENA = Applied Research Ethics National Association - ARENA is an association of researchers, medical subject advocates, IACUC and IRB members and others interested in issues of bioethics; the group's mission is to facilitate networking, and to promote the sharing of information about human and nonhuman medical subjects, their treatment, scientific misconduct and ethics in health care.
AWA = Animal Welfare Act - This piece of legislation represents the Federal government's highest standard of care and perpetuates the farce of "humane use" of nonhuman animals in biomedical research. While the Act is designed to "protect" all nonhuman animals in research and commerce, the USDA has chosen to arbitrarily exclude birds, rats and mice from legislation.
AWIC = Animal Welfare Information Center - A center of the National Agriculture Library, this really is an "information center." You can find links to papers and publications on topics from "Legislation, Policies and Guidelines" to a list of searchable databases to links to organizations promoting alternatives to animal research.
Biological Models = This office within Comparative Medicine develops non-mammalian models for human disease. According to the blurb about them on Comparative Medicine's web site, Biological Models supports "[r]esource facilities that make critical biological materials available to the research community..."
Bioqual, Inc. = This private biomedical research lab in Rockville, Maryland takes funds and infant chimpanzees from NCRR. Bioqual used to be called SEMA - maybe you've seen footage of psychologically disturbed chimpanzee babies in isolettes from this place? They're still in business, and use nonhuman primates (including the infants) for disease and toxicology research.
BRR = Baboon Research Resources - This Oklahoma baboon laboratory produces baboons for NIH-funded research.
CDC = Centers for Disease Control & Prevention - This federal agency protects the health of the American public by monitoring disease trends and investigating outbreaks. The CDC also does its own research (in disease prevention and control) and awards grants and 'cooperative agreements.' To our knowledge, the CDC maintains at least one chimpanzee and one monkey colony at its facility in Atlanta.
ChiMP = Chimpanzee Management Program - Coordinating office for chimpanzee breeding and research, as well as the Chimp Haven facility. While the facility claims to provide "a permanent home for chimpanzees," its enabling statute, the Chimpanzee Health Improvement, Maintenance and Protection Act, allows chimpanzees to be returned to research in certain situations.
CM = Comparative Medicine - Provides animals and support to laboratories, develops nonhuman models for human disease, provides training to post-docs. This is the office supporting the National Primate Research Centers.
CMR = Comparative Medicine Resources - The shelf in Comparative Medicine where the National Primate Research Centers, and other Primate Resources are kept.
CPRC = Carribean Primate Research Center Program The Center is comprised of two colonies of rhesus macaques, one in sem-natural conditions (Cayo Santiago) and the other in a more typical biomedical research setting (Sabana Seca); also the CPRC Museum, and the Sierra Bermeja Field Study Site, where free-ranging and unprovisioned patas monkeys are studied.
CRISP = Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects - NIH database of PHS-funded grant proposals for biomedical research. From this page, click on "Go to CRISP Current Awards Query Form" to search for contemporary research. You'll have the best luck by keeping your searches simple. Don't take this resource for granted, but don't accept your findings as the final word on the subject.
CNPRC = California National Primate Research Center - CRPRC houses rhesus and long-tail macaques. They are used in all manner of invasive biomedical research, including HIV and other infectious diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, xenotransplantation, drug addiction, and nutritional deficiencies.
CSR = Center for Scientific Review - This Center is the first step in the NIH grant application peer-review process. CSR scientifically reviews grant applications (click HERE for a short description of the grant review process) by assigning projects to the appropriate NIH Institute or Center, and to the appropriate CSR Integrated Review Group (IRG) study section and Scientific Review Administrator (SRA).
DHHS = Department of Health and Human Services - Primary agency for issues of health and other welfare services this is the largest granting institution in the government.
DOD = Department of Defense - Funds and conducts some nonhuman primate research.
DOI = Department of the Interior - Home to the US Fish and Wildlife Service, which enforces the Endangered Species Act. Of specific interest to chimpanzees and other "split-listed" nonhuman primates. For an look at the ESA and an explanation and overview of the current status of chimpanzees in the US, see either the link below for the text of the ESA itself, or WANNA BUY A CHIMP?
ESA = Endangered Species Act - see DOI
FASEB = Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology - A coalition of independent "member societies that serves the interests of biomedical scientists." FASEB also acts as an advocate for biomedical research to Congress and other government organizations.
FBR = Foundation for Biomedical Research - Sister to National Association for Biomedical Research. Both groups are the response of the pro-biomedical research community to rights and abolitionist groups. FBR's web site is fairly interesting - we highly recommend visiting to get research's final word on nonhuman rights and welfare; efforts to stop biomedical research; and the role of animal research on human health.
FDA = Food and Drug Administration - Assures the safety of food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, biological products and medical devices. Reviews clinical research and approves drugs and the like for use by the public. The FDA apparently maintains its own chimpanzee colony in Maryland.
HBV Lab = Herpes B-Virus Diagnosis: National Resource Laboratory - Herpes B is a virus carried by most macaques and even some other monkey species; B virus is nearly always fatal to humans who contract it. The existence of this laboratory is proof of the seriousness of the possibility of transmisson of this zoonosis. The HBV lab provides information and diagnostic services.
IACUC = Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee - Mandated by the AWA and required of all research institutions except those using only birds, mice and rats. Also required of Public Health Service institutions, (PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use does cover birds, mice and rats). Reviews all research proposals being submitted by that institution to the NIH, and monitors active research activities. Comprised of at least three individuals (PHS requires at least five), one of whom is a veterinarian and one not associated with the laboratory. see Regulatory Overview for more on IACUCs
ICCVAM = Interagency Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods - This committee is involved in the validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological testing methods that replace, reduce or refine animal use. Conducts peer review of research performed by individual laboratories and determines validity and eventual acceptance of alternatives to animal use. This committee is comprised of representatives from 15 Federal regulatory and research agencies, and is a component of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
ILAR = Institute for Lab Animal Research - Provides scientific and technical information on lab animals for IACUCS, the scientific community and the public. Along with the National Academies Press, has produced many publications of interest to chimpanzees and monkeys and other animals in laboratories, including "The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals". For other ILAR publications see PUBLICATIONS.
IOM = Institute of Medicine - One of the National Academies. Works to "advance and disseminate scientific knowledge to improve human health."
IRB = Institutional Review Board - Reviews studies with human subjects. The human clinical trial version of an IACUC.
IRG = Integrated Review Groups - IRGs and their study sections are the first step in the peer-review of NIH grant applications. They decide if a project gets "streamlined," (in which the project is not rejected but sent back for revisions; the applicant can try again) or goes on to an Institute Advisory Council.
LABS of Virginia [no web site available but click here for an Aesop Project article] = LABS houses both specific pathogen free (SPF) rhesus and pigtail macaque breeding colonies as well as non-SPF groups. Of 6500 monkeys, about 1500 live in social groups; over 100 babies are produced for research every year. More famously, LABS is known for its illegal shipments of infant monkeys from Indonesia. Click here to read about the indictments of LABS and three of its officers.
LAS = Laboratory Animal Sciences - Component of National Institutes of Health, and buried in the area of Comparative Medicine, LAS oversees and supports improvement of the health of animals in labs, and awards grants for research intended to improve the lives of animals which will be given human diseases, as well as efforts to "improve animal models of human disease."
Medline/PubMed With this NLM database you can search a very comprehensive array of medical journals. Find out what your favorite researcher has published!
NABR = National Association of Biomedical Research - This non-profit organization is sister to the Foundation for Biomedical Research. The role of NABR is to promote biomedical research and, according to their web site, to provide "...the unified voice for the scientific community on legislative and regulatory matters affecting laboratory animal research."
NAE = National Academy of Engineering - A component of the National Academies of Sciences.
NAL = National Agriculture Libary - The nation's primary source for agricultural information; provides information for researchers, educators, policy makers and the public.
NAP = National Academies Press - Publisher of Institute of Laboratory Animal Research reports (see PUBLICATIONS for ILAR reports relating to biomedical research).
NAS = National Academy of Science - Advises the federal government, upon request and without fee, on questions of science and technology.
National Academies = NAS + NAE + IOM - This nonprofit is a society of science and engineering scholars "dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology to their use for general welfare," so their web site says. The National Academies advise the government on matters of Science, Engineering and Medicine.
NBAC = National Bioethics Advisory Commission - Advises and makes recommendations to the National Science and Technology Council (chaired by the President) on issues of human bioethics. NBAC talks about promoting "humane animal use in biomedical research," but in truth, nonhumans are not accorded much active or productive consideration in the world of bioethics.
NCI = National Cancer Institute see NIH
NCRR = National Center for Research Resources - This NIH Center makes biomedical research happen. The Center provides the technology, infrastructure and support to enable research using human and nonhuman animal research subjects. In the case of nonhuman subjects, NCRR provides mammals and other animals for use in research and funds research as well as research institutions.
NEI = National Eye Institute - see NIH
NENPRC = New England National Primate Research Center - This laboratory utilizes monkeys for infectious disease (including SIV/SHIV), immunology, pathology, neurology, and behavioral research. Over 1400 monkeys, mostly macaques, live at Harvard's facility.
NHGRI = National Human Genome Research Institute - see NIH
NHLBI = National Heart, Lung & Blood Institute - see NIH
NIA = National Institute on Aging - see NIH
NIAAA = National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism - see NIH
NIAID = National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - see NIH
NIAMS = National Institute Of Arthritis & Musculoskeletal & Skin Disorders - see NIH
NICEATM = National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods - This Center provides operational support and the like for the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (see ICCVAM).
NICHD = National Institute on Child Health and Human Development - see NIH
NIDA = National Institute of Drug Abuse - see NIH
NIDR = National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research - see NIH
NIDDK = National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases - see NIH
NIDCD = National Institute of Deafness & Other Communication Disorders - see NIH
NIEHS = National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences - This Institute is the parent agency of the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and NICEATM, the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods.
NIH = National Institutes of Health - The NIH is one of the Public Health Service operating divisions. It supports 35,000 health-related projects nationwide, and is comprised of 27 Institutes, Offices ,and Centers, most of which perform some sort of biomedical research on nonhuman subjects (intramural research). Many of the Institutes also fund extramural (in labs outside of the NIH) biomedical research. All of the Institutes included in this list support or perform biomedical research on nonhuman research subjects.
NIMH = National Institue of Mental Health - see NIH
NINDS = National Institute of Neurological Disorders & Stroke - see NIH
NLM = National Library of Medicine - This NIH component gives us the Medline database.
NPRCs = National Primate Research Centers [see individual centers] Eight of them (California, New England, Oregon, Southwest Foundation, Tulane, Washington, Wisconsin, Yerkes - see individual glossary entries for more details and web site addresses) house over 20,000 monkeys and chimpanzees (representing 30 species). Monkeys and chimpanzees are housed singly, in pairs and in groups, and are used for breeding, behavioral and biomedical research. The NPRCs fall under the control of the Comparative Medicine branch of the National Center for Research Resources.
NRC = National Research Council - Formed and governed by NAS, NAE and IOM. Forms committees of scientists, engineers, and professionals to carry out projects for the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine
NSF = National Science Foundation - This independent agency promotes science and engineering. NSF funds some primate research - mostly non-invasive. Grants and awards can be searched on the Fastlane database.
OACU = Office of Animal Care and Use - This Office "...provides oversight and programmatic assistence..." Its web site provides information for Animal Care and Use Committees, veterinarians, and NIH scientists and staff involved in biomedical research. According to OACU's web site, "21 of the 30 NIH components use animals in their intramural research programs." This Office falls under the auspices of the NIH Office of the Director.
OAR = Office of AIDS Research - Makes scientific, financial and legislative policy on AIDS research for the National Institutes of Health. OAR is found in NIH's Office of the Director.
OD = Office of the Director - OD is the practical side of NIH, and contains offices dealing with issues of funding, law and ethics.
OER = Office of Extramural Research - Provides funding to various universities, institutions, and medical centers throughout the country. 80-85% of NIH's budget supports biomedical and behavioral research in extramural programs. This Office falls under the umbrella of the Office of the Director.
OIR = Office of Intramural Research - This Office oversees and coordinates biomedical research performed within the labs and clinics of the NIH Intramural research takes up about 11% of total NIH budget; this Office is a component of OD.
OLAW = Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare - Formerly OPRR. Implements and interprets Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Located in the Office of Extramural Research.
OLPA = Office of Legislative Policy and Analysis - According to its web site, this NIH office provides "legislative analysis, policy development and liason with the Congress." OLPA's role is to push the NIH's legislative agenda and keep it safe by representing the NIH to Congress, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Office of Management and Budget and other agencies.
ONPRC = Oregon National Primate Research Center - The ORPRC is enjoying a lot of publicity lately because of its exposure by a former employee. ONPRC is engaged in cloning, HIV and other invasive biomedical research on monkey subjects, of which it claims to house over 2000.
OSPP = Office of Science Policy and Planning - Is this who's steering the ship? OSPP deals with ethics, legal and social implications of the NIH's work and is the only place in the NIH you'll find information on bioethics.
PFA = Primate Foundation of Arizona - A chimpanzee warehouse masquerading as a sanctuary. PFA has provided chimpanzees to biomedical research labs in the past, and continues to be funded by NIH. One of the members of LPAG, Annie Chimpanzee, was a resident of PFA until she was sent to the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates (LEMSIP). Annie remained at LEMSIP, and was nearly transferred to the Coulston Foundation, until the Fauna Foundation offered to provide her true sanctuary.
PRIM&R = Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research - This non-profit organization is involved in the training and education of IRB and IACUC members, as well as other professionals and the public, on issues concerning "the ethical and legal and policy dimensions of appropriate and ethical biomedical research and clinical practice." Oversees ARENA, the Applied Research Ethics National Association, which is a membership organization.
SMBRR = Squirrel Monkey Breeding and Research Resource - SMBRR carries out research on squirrel monkeys while producing more of them for NIH-funded research.
SNPRC = Southwest National Primate Research Center - The bodies of Southwest's macaques, baboons and chimpanzees are used to study human infectious and neonatal diseases, pathobiology physiology, genetics and behavior.
TCF = The Coulston Foundation - [web site no longer available] Coulston was, until Fall 2002, the largest captive chimpanzee colony in the world. This former private laboratory for biomedical research on chimpanzees and various species of monkey had been cited, fined and criticized by every regulatory agency, including the FDA, USDA, and AAALAC, International. After the NIH "took title" to about half of the chimpanzee colony, the laboratory continued to deteriorate causing the NIH itself to be in clear violation of the law. When the TCF experienced insurmountable financial difficulties, Save the Chimps (formerly known as the Center for Captive Chimpanzee Care) stepped in and took control of the failed lab. The surviving 266 chimpanzees and 61 monkeys will spend their remaining days in sanctuary.
TNPRC = Tulane National Primate Research Center - Tulane researchers produce and utilize rhesus, long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques; patas, squirrel, owl, and green monkeys; mangabeys and baboons for the study of antivirals and experimental infections.
*ULL-NIRC = University of Louisiana at Lafayette - New Iberia Research Center - New Iberia houses nearly 400 chimpanzees and over 5,000 New World and Old World monkeys, all born to serve the cause of biomedical research. New Iberia is also home to Dr. Daniel Povinelli, who is known for his proposal to revive the archaic practice of cross-fostering (in this case, taking an infant chimp from her mother and giving her to a human family to raise).
USDA = US Department of Agriculure - The USDA is the Federal agency responsible for enforcing legislation governing the use of nonhuman animals in industry and commerce (including entertainment, food, and research). Chiefly, this includes the Animal Welfare Act/Title 9 Code of Federal Regulations (see AWA, or PUBLICATIONS for an overview).
USFWS = United States Fish and Wildlife Service - The Service is responsible for protecting all indigenous birds and mammals, for the benefit of Americans, by administering the Endangered Species Act (see ESA for relevance).
UTMDACC = University of Texas - M.D. Anderson Cancer Center - This facility in Bastrop houses around 150 chimpanzees, who are used in Hepatitis B and C, HIV, diabetes, and obesity research, among other things.
WNPRC = Wisconsin National Primate Research Center - Wisconsin researchers use about a thousand rhesus macaques and several hundred marmosets for behavioral and biomedical research. In addition to research, WNPRC runs the Primate Info Net and also AskPrimate and keeps an extensive library of primate-related information.
WaNPRC = Washington National Primate Research Center - Washington keeps the three most popular macaque species for use in biomedical research. This NPRC also has a separate Infant Primate Research Laboratory, and also distributes the Primate Supply Information Clearinghouse (PSIC) which is a sort of classified pages for the sharing and recycling of "extra" nonhuman primates.
YNPRC = Yerkes National Primate Research Center - Yerkes houses several thousand monkeys of many species, including rhesus, long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, Sykes (or Blue) monkeys (a guenon subspecies), baboons, and squirrel monkeys, as well as over 100 chimpanzees. Subjects are used in behavioral and biomedical research.